Knee Replacement Surgery: What is It & Types?

By Prof. (Dr.) Pradeep B. Bhosale in Institute for Bone, Joint Replacement, Orthopaedics Spine and Sports Medicine

Apr 24 , 2023 | 3 min read

Knee replacement is a very famous orthopaedic procedure that involves the surgical removal of a person’s damaged knee joint and replacing it with a prosthetic component. The procedure is offered by all the leading joint replacement surgeons in Mumbai

There has been a considerable increase in the number of patients opting for knee replacement surgery in India over the past few years, which clearly indicates the success rate of the procedure and the growing faith of the people in it. Knee replacement surgery is broadly classified into two categories:

  1. Total knee replacement
  2. Partial knee replacement


Total knee replacement

It is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedure that involves the replacement of the whole knee joint in patients whose knee joints have been damaged completely beyond repair due to an underlying degenerative disease or an injury sustained in an accident. Total knee replacement can help you to get rid of the pain and lead a healthy life with a better range of motion. Post the surgery, the patients need to follow certain guidelines and resort to healthy lifestyle modifications. Rigorous physical activities should be avoided for the first few weeks following the surgery. Total knee replacement surgery is offered at all the top-notch orthopaedic and joint replacement hospitals in Mumbai.

Total knee replacement can be further categorized into the following types:

  • High flex total knee replacement- Unlike the conventional implants that allow knee flexion of around 120 to 125 degrees, high flex implants allow increased flexion of about 150 to 155 degrees, thereby giving you a better range of motion and allowing you to perform activities like climbing stairs, squatting, kneeling etc. Owing to the fact that high flex implants are slightly modified to give better flexion, there is a need of 2-4 mm of additional bone resection.


  • Oxinium total knee replacement- The prosthetic femoral components used in a knee replacement surgery are usually made up of metals like cobalt-chromium with plastic as an articulating surface. However, gradual wear and tear can result in the roughening of the upper surface of the implants and the plastic surface starts to wear out resulting in suspended implant debris in the surrounding areas. This can lead to aseptic loosening. In such cases, using an Oxinium implant is the best option. Use of oxidised zirconium (OxZr) has helped to reduce the incidences of wear and tear by 85 per cent.


  • Revision total knee replacement- As the name suggests, it is a revision replacement surgery that is performed to replace an existing prosthetic joint, or a part of it, which has been damaged by excessive wear and tear or an accident or injury. Revision knee replacement procedure is similar to primary total knee replacement.

Revision knee replacement surgery may also be performed in case of chronic infection at the site of the primary implant.In such cases, the surgery is performed in two different steps which involve the removal of the primary implant and placement of an antibiotic spacer block which is kept there for 6 to 12 weeks. The antibiotics present in the spacer help to clear the infection, after which another surgery is performed to place the new implant.

Partial knee replacement

In some cases where only a small part of the patient’s knee joint has been damaged, it is futile to replace the whole knee joint. Hence partial knee replacement is the best treatment option for such patients. The procedure involves the replacement of only the damaged part of the joint with a new prosthetic component. The doctor will make an incision on your knee to access the affected joint and the damaged bone and joint debris are removed. A small metallic or plastic component is cemented in its place and the wound is closed.

Whether you should opt for total knee replacement or partial knee replacement is decided by your doctor after carefully examining your knee and determining the extent of the damage. So it is important to evaluate all your options and consult a specialist in the field before taking any decision.

Medically Reviewed

Prof. (Dr.) Pradeep Bhosale (Director - Arthritis & Joint Replacement Surgery)

Prof. (Dr.) Pradeep Bhosale is Director - Arthritis & Joint Replacement Surgery at Nanavati Max Super Speciality Hospital. With an experience spanning over 36 years, he has performed over 10,000 Complex Primary and Revision Hip, Knee & Shoulder Arthroplasties. He is the former Head of Department,  Orthopaedic, at renowned Seth G.S. Medical College & K.E.M. Hospital, Parel. 

Related Blogs

Blogs by Doctor

Subscribe to Max Blogs & Get stories like this in your inbox

Related Blogs

Blogs by Doctor

Subscribe to Max Blogs & Get stories like this in your inbox