Spine Decompression Surgery: What It is & How Can It Helps in Relieving Joint Pain?

By Dr. Mihir Bapat in Institute for Bone, Joint Replacement, Orthopaedics Spine and Sports Medicine , Center of Spine Surgery

Apr 24 , 2023 | 3 min read

Spinal stenosis is caused by age related changes that occur in the body like enlarged joints, arthritis, bulging discs, thickened ligaments and bone spurs. Decompression surgery essentially opens the bony canals through which the nerves and spinal cord pass, which creates more space for them to more freely and easily. Stenosis or the narrowing of the nerve root canals and spinal cord can cause numbness, persistent pain and muscle weakness in your arms and legs. Physical therapy or medications are used as the first step. If that doesn’t work, then surgery may be recommended.

A joint replacement surgeon in Mumbai works in an orthopaedic & joint replacement hospital who receives specialized training and knowledge in diagnosing and providing preoperative, operative and post operative care and treatment of injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Spine hospital and spine surgery specialists are experts in performing various joint replacement surgeries. 

Joint replacement who work in orthopaedic & joint replacement hospitals are considered among the foremost and best spine surgeons. and specialistcan diagnose the patients and formulate a treatment plan accordingly. The treatment plan is based on the patient’s condition and varies from person to person. Joint pain can be a very troublesome and stressful and can hinder your day to day activities by restricting your movements. Hence it is very important to carefully research and only choose the best joint replacement surgery hospital. You will find a number of spine hospitals in Mumbai who have highly trained orthopaedic surgeons yet are affordable, having years of expertise making them the best spine surgeons.

There are various conditions that can cause a joint pain or a disability that leads to patients considering a joint replacement surgery. Experiencing symptoms like inflammation, pain, difficulty in moving the joints, then you should considering making a visit to an orthopaedic surgeon. This can happen due to damage to the joints from injury or disease.

Spinal decompression procedure can be performed anywhere along the spine from the cervical (neck) to the lumbar (lower back). The surgery is essentially performed though an incision in the posterior (back) muscles. The lamina bone, which forms the backside of spinal cord making a roof over the spinal cord, is removed along with the thickened ligaments which gives more space for the nerves and allows for the removal of osteophytes (bone spurs).

Spinal decompression surgery are of various types –

  1. Laminotomy –  In Laminotomy, a small portion of the lamina and the ligaments are removed but usually only on one side. By using this method of surgery, the natural support of the lamina is left in place which decreases the chances of spinal instability. In some cases, an endoscope might be used, which allows for a less invasive and smaller incision.


  1. Laminectomy –  In Laminectomy, the entire bony lamina is removed, along with the thickened ligaments overlying the nerves and spinal cord and a portion of the enlarged facet joints.


  1. Laminaplasty –  This procedure is the expansion of the spinal cord which is done by cutting the laminae on only one side and swinging them open, much like a door. It is used only in the cervical (neck) area.


  1. Foraminotomy – This means the removes of the bone around the neural foramen, which is the canal where the nerve root is exiting the spine. When the disc degeneration has caused the height of foramen to pinch a nerve or collapse, this method is used.


  1. Discectomy – Which is the removal of a portion of a degenerative disc or bulging disc to relieve the pressure on the nerves.


In some of the cases, a procedure called spinal fusion might be done at the same time in order to stabilize some sections of the spine which is treated with laminectomy. This procedure uses a combination of screws, bone graft, and rods to connect two separate vertebrae into one new piece of bone. By doing this, the joints prevent the spinal stenosis from recurring and can also help remove the pain from an unstable spine.

Medically Reviewed

Dr. Mihir Bapat (Director & Sr Consultant - Nanavati Max Institute of Spine Surgery)

Dr. Mihir Bapat is Director & Sr Consultant at Nanavati Max Institute of Spine Surgery with an experience spanning over 25 years. He has performed over 8000 successful spine surgeries and had been awarded numerous accolades for his contribution in the field. He specialises in Column traumatology, Percutaneous Vertebroplasty for Compression Fracture and Complex Spinal Deformity Correction.

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