Otolaryngology: What is It & Causes & Treatment Process?

By Dr. Manohar Shaan in ENT

Apr 24 , 2023 | 3 min read

Otolaryngology is one of the oldest medical specialties which treats problems or diseases related to the ear nose and throat. On the other hand, otolaryngologists are physicians trained in the medical and surgical management and treatment of patients with diseases and disorders of the same, and also for the related structures of the head and neck. They are commonly referred to as ENT physicians. These specialists majorly diagnose diseases of the sinuses, larynx, oral cavity, and upper pharynx (mouth and throat), as well as structures of the neck and face. They diagnose, treat, and manage specialty-specific disorders as well as many primary care problems in both children and adults.

Well, explaining in laymen's terms ENT surgeons often treat conditions that affect the senses such as hearing and balance disorders or smell and taste problems. These professionals are responsible for treating conditions affecting the voice, breathing, and swallowing as well as those with head and neck tumors including the skull base and interface with the brain. At the same time, they may treat people of all ages from newborn babies to elderly people. ENT specialists undergo the widest range of operations of any specialty from major head & neck procedures with flaps & complex reconstructions to microsurgery on the ear.

So, if you are suffering from the same condition then can consult the best specialist in Mumbai as the region offers some good options.

What Do Otolaryngologists Treat?

4 organs disorders that are treated by otolaryngologists;

1. The Ears

The branch of medical science which treat ear disorders. These otolaryngologists are well-trained in the treatment procedure of hearing, ear infections, balance disorders, ear noise (tinnitus), nerve pain, and facial and cranial nerve disorders. These professionals also treat congenital (birth) disorders of the outer and inner ear.

2. The Nose

Here, the otolaryngologists are indulged in treating the nasal area which includes allergies and sense of smell.

3. The Throat

Here, the otolaryngologists actually treat diseases of the larynx (voice box) and the upper aero-digestive tract or esophagus, including voice and swallowing disorders.

4. The Head and Neck

Here, otolaryngologists are responsible for treating infectious diseases, both benign and malignant tumors, facial trauma, and deformities of the face. They execute both cosmetic plastic and reconstructive surgery as well.

Also Read About ENT Diseases

Diagnosis and Treatment

6 areas of expertise;

1. Otology/Neurotology

A branch of clinical medicine which diseases of the ear like trauma (injury), cancer, and nerve pathway disorders, affecting hearing and balance.

2. Pediatric Otolaryngology

It treats diseases in children with special ENT problems including birth defects in the head and neck and developmental delays.

3. Head and Neck

This is responsible for treating cancerous and noncancerous tumors usually in the head and neck, including the thyroid and parathyroid.

4. Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

The surgical procedure is used for treating cosmetic, functional, and reconstructive surgical treatment of abnormalities of the face and neck.

5. Rhinology

The branch of medical science deals with the disorders of the nose and sinuses.

6. Laryngology

It deals with disorders of the throat, including voice and swallowing problems.

Other Surgical Procedures

3 common surgical procedures that ENT specialists use:

1. Insertion of Grommets for Glue Ear

This surgical procedure majorly involves a very small incision in the eardrum and is typically carried out on children. The grommets help to ventilate the middle ear and resolve middle ear effusions

2. Microlaryngoscopy

This surgical procedure involves the insertion of a short metal tube into the larynx.

3. Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

This involves the insertion of a tiny telescope into the nasal passages to diagnose and treat difficult sinus conditions. Technically refined instruments are then used to restore proper function

The success of any surgical or medical procedure involves precautionary measures post-treatment which are needed to follow as the success of the treatment depends on the same. Here, it is also imperative to get treated in the best ENT specialist hospital in Mumbai in order to get the best results.

Reviewed By

Dr. Manohar Shaan (Head & Sr Consultant - ENT)

Dr. Manohar Shaan is Head and Senior Consultant, ENT at Nanavati Max Super Speciality Hospital. He has 34 years of experience in the field and holds prestigious Membership in the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland. He specializes in Cochlear Implants and has performed thousands of successful surgeries to date. 

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