Different Types of Lung Diseases and Symptoms

By Dr. Salil S. Bendre in Centre for Chest & Respiratory Diseases

Apr 24 , 2023 | 3 min read


Lung diseases are one of the most common medical conditions in India. According to a report, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was the second-highest cause of death in India after heart disease in 2017. These growing numbers deserve your attention and action. Some of the major reasons behind the same are increasing pollution in the environment and chain smoking. Other reasons are infection and genetics. Best pulmonologists in India often recommend to quit smoking on the other hand advice to take some preventive actions to control the constantly increasing pollution. Chest & respiratory diseases in India are a growing concern nowadays for both the doctors and the patients owing to the increased level of pollution and excessive smoking which should be dealt as soon as possible.

The lungs being an important part of the body, perform multiple functions at a single time. It expands and relaxes thousands of times each day to bring in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide. In this continuous and hectic procedure, there is always a possibility of collapse.

Types of Lung Diseases

There are different types of lung diseases that may affect you because of the below-mentioned reasons. The following are categorised under different heads on the basis of the part of the lungs they affect.

Lung Diseases Affecting the Airways

1. Asthma

Most commonly known as a breathing disorder, asthma causes shortness of breath. Generally, allergies, infection or pollution may trigger its symptoms.

2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

COPD is a kind of lung condition in which you feel difficulty exhaling normally. It may also cause breathing problem.

3. Chronic and Acute Bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis is a form of COPD, in which excessive cough is produced. On the other hand, acute bronchitis is caused due to infection through a virus.

4. Cystic Fibrosis

This involves the meagre clearance of mucus from the bronchi. Being a genetic condition, people who have a family history are more prone to the disease. One can suffer from persistent lung infection due to the accumulated mucus.

Lung Diseases Affecting The Air Sacs

1. Pneumonia

Pneumonia is caused due to bacterial infection in the alveoli.

2. Tuberculosis

This is another form of pneumonia but progress slowly and is caused due to the bacterial infection.

3. Lung Cancer

Lung cancer can be developed in any part of the lungs. Generally, it affects the main part, or near the air sacs. Its treatment is determined by the location, type and the extent to which cancer has spread (stage).

Lung Diseases Affecting the Interstitium

1. Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD)

This involves a huge collection of lung conditions affecting the interstitium. Among various types of ILD, sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and autoimmune disease are the three of them. However, interstitium can also be affected by diseases like pneumonia and pulmonary edemas.

Lung Diseases Affecting Blood Vessels

1. Pulmonary Embolism

One of the major reasons for pulmonary embolism is a blood clot that travels to the lungs from the legs or, rarely, other parts of the body. It is basically a blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries in your lungs. This increases the risk of a heart attack.

2. Pulmonary Hypertension

This is a condition of high blood pressure that affects the arteries of the lungs along with the right side of the heart. This also causes harm to the pulmonary arterioles (tiny arteries in the lungs) and capillaries as they become narrow and sometimes blocked.

Lung Diseases Affecting the Pleura

1. Pleural Effusion

This involves the fluid collection in the normally tiny pleura space between the lung and the chest wall. This needs immediate treatment because if space becomes large and the fluid accumulates then it can cause breathing problems.

2. Mesothelioma

Pleura cancer is another name of Mesothelioma which develops in the pleura. It gradually develops overtime after getting exposed to asbestos.

Nanavati Hospital is listed among the best hospitals in Mumbai where all the above-mentioned types of lung diseases are treated with specialised care along with utmost accuracy and precision.

Reviewed By

Dr Salil Bendre (heads Centre for Chest and Respiratory Disease)

Dr. Salil Bendre heads the Centre for Chest and Respiratory Disease at Nanavati Max Super Speciality Hospital. He has vast experience of over 27 years and specialises in diagnostic and theraputic services for Lung Infections, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Sleep Apnoea, Nicotine/Tobacco (Smoking) De-addiction Treatment, Chest Disease and Eosinophilia Treatment among others.