Neurological Disorders: Type of Causes & Symptoms

By Dr. Pradyumna J. Oak in Centre for Neurosciences

Apr 24 , 2023 | 3 min read

A human’s brain tends to develop in the mother’s womb and continues to develop through infancy, childhood and adolescence. However, many a time it happens that the brain lacks development which means it is not developed that much which it should be. This is where the disorder arises which is called as a neurologic disorder. So, it can be defined as any condition that is caused by a dysfunction in part of the brain or nervous system, resulting in physical and/or psychological symptoms. However, most brain cells are formed before birth but the trillions of connections between these nerve cells (neurons) are not developed until infancy.

Here, the disorder and its symptoms depend on where damage occurs. Every disorder has its own symptoms of neurologic disorders vary. Many a time these neurologic disorders can be rectified during the early years of development and may be diagnosed at birth however, some are diagnosed later because of appearing symptoms. Here, it becomes very imperative to consult the best neurologist in Mumbai in order to get the right treatments at the right time.

What Causes Neurological Disorder?

The causes are often classified into specific categories like congenital, pre/perinatal and acquired causes.

Congenital Causes

The disorder which was present at birth. Here the genetic factors can influence the development of a variety of neurologic disorders that are typically inherited from parents through genes and chromosomes.

1. Gene Abnormalities

Changes in genes are known as mutations so, some mutations cause abnormalities which are damaging to individuals. These mutations are then passed on to offspring thus affecting their characteristics.

2. Chromosome Abnormalities

Changes in chromosomes, whether in number or in structure, have large effects on characteristics because they contain large numbers of genes.

3. Change in Chromosome Number

It cause loss of one chromosome out of a pair.

4. Change in Chromosome Structure

This result in a loss of genes from a chromosome.

5. Metabolic Disorders

This causes damage to brain cells and to intellectual ability and cause lasting damage.

6. Congenital Malformation

It can be defined as a condition where children have inner growths in regions such as the brain, malformation in heart, eyes, skin, kidneys and lungs.

Pre/Perinatal Causes

1. Toxins and Environmental Factors

This affects the child’s intellectual and behavioural problems as neurotoxins can enter and damage a child’s developing system through the placenta during fetal development.

2. Nutritional Deficiencies

A nutrition deficiency can develop into a neurological disorder. So, deficiency of nutrients during the last three months of pregnancy can decrease the number of brain cells. That’s why is advisable for the women to eat nutrients rich food during pregnancy.

3. Infections

The term infection here relates to TORCH infections which includes sexually transmitted infections, can be passed from mother to baby during pregnancy.

4. Hypoxia/Asphyxia

Perinatal asphyxia can be defined as the condition resulting from a lack of oxygen. Similarly, hypoxic ischemia is insufficient blood flow causing reduced blood oxygen content. So, if a developing baby in the uterus does not have enough oxygen then it may have hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy which is neurologic damage caused by low oxygen.

5. Complications During Childbirth

Here, due to non-development of a protective skull that protects your brain is not fully formed at birth thus, making the brain vulnerable to physical injury.

Acquired Causes

These are the causes that are developed after birth.

1. Immune Disorders

The immune disorder can cause emotional challenges, abnormal body movements and seizures. People who are suffering from such problems can develop symptoms over several months and the diagnosis is challenging and frequently involves analysis of blood and cerebrospinal fluid.

2. Traumatic Brain Injury

This occurs when damage is caused to the brain which are of three types closed head injuries, open wounds and crushing injuries.

So, if you have suffered from the same then should immediately go to the best hospital in India.

Medically Reviewed

Dr. Pradyumna Oak (Director & Head - Neurology)

Dr. Pradyumna Oak is the Director and Head of Neurology with an experience of over 20 years. He has vast experience in Acute Stroke Management & Neuro Intervention. He was Instrumental in setting up State-of-the-art Stroke Unit & Neuro ICU at Nanavati Max Hospital with a door-to-needle time of less than 30 minutes.