Colon Cancer: Stages and Process of Treatment

By Dr. Ganesh Nagarajan in Nanavati Max Institute of Cancer Care

Apr 24 , 2023 | 3 min read

Cancer is the constant and uncontrolled division of cell in one and/or many parts of the body. Normally a cell divides and replaces the old cell, however, in cancer, these cells do not get replaced but keep on increasing, thus forming mass of millions and trillions of cells. There have been much advancement in the treatment of cancer, yet Nanavati Max being the best hospital In India say it stands to be one of the most potent health problems in the world affecting millions of people with numbers continuously increasing.

Colon cancer is the type of cancer which begins in the large intestine (last part of the digestive tract). Colon cancer usually affects adults. It usually begins in the form of polyps, which are small masses of non-cancerous cells which are present on the inside of colon. These polyps usually don’t show any symptoms, that’s why we always suggest our patients to get a regular screening done. Many treatments are provided by us today which lead to a control or treatment of colon cancer. Some of the treatment procedures followed for colon cancer is radiation, chemotherapy, surgery or immunotherapy.  The best liver transplant hospital in india suggest that treatment of colon cancer is largely dependent on stage of the cancer along with few other factors. We are one of the best liver specialists.


In this stage the colon cancer is in the inner linings of the colon wall. In this stage the surgery to remove colon is only treatment. Use of colonoscopy can be done to remove the inner lining or polyp. Partial removal of colon might be needed in case tumor is big.


At stage I the cancer grows deeper in the colon wall but it is still in the layers of colon wall. The cancer does not grow outside the colon, thus it can be cured and controlled. Stage 1 has cancer n parts of polyp, removed similarly through colonoscopy.  In cases cancer is at the edge of the polyp, more surgeries might be suggested. If cancer is not in polyp, partial removal of colon takes place to remove areas near lymph nodes and inside colon. In such a typical case no further treatments might be required.


In many cases the cancer grows through the wall of colon and maybe in the nearby tissue and lymph nodes. Partial colectomy might be the only treatment needed in this case. Our specialists might recommend adjuvant chemotherapy along with it, if there are chances of cancer to grow again because of various factors.  Some of the factors affecting it could be:

  1. The cancer looks highly developed under a microscope.
  2. Cancer has grown into the nearby blood vessels.
  3. Colon is blocked due to cancer.
  4. A perforation was created in the wall of colon due to the cancer.
  5. Cancer was detected n or near the margin of the removed part.

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It is always important to discuss the pros and cons of chemo therapy before finalizing it, usually the oncologists do not suggest chemo in second stage colon cancer.


At stage 3 the colon cancer had spread to the lymph nodes but has not spread to the other organs yet. Partial colectomy along with the nearby lymph nodes, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy is the most common treatment for this stage.  Radiation therapy might be a solution for patients who cannot undergo surgery.


In this stage the cancer spreads from the colon to lymph node and various part of the body. Colon cancer most probably spreads to the liver, which is then treated through liver cancer treatment in mumbai, but it can also affect lungs, brain or peritoneum. Mostly in these cases surgery is unlikely to cure cancer.

If metastasis cannot be removed due to the size, chemo is used to reduce it and then surgery is done, after which chemo is performed again. In stage 4 chemo is the main method of treatment used by oncologists, however, surgery might be performed depending upon the situation. A gastric band surgery in Mumbai can be performed in case of need.

Medically Reviewed

Dr. Ganesh Nagarajan (Director - Hepato-Pancreatic-Biliary Surgery & Gastrointestinal Oncology)

Dr. Ganesh Nagarajan is the Director - Hepato-Pancreatic-Biliary Surgery & Gastrointestinal Oncology and one of the finest Oncosurgeons of India. With an experience of over 22 years, he specialises in surgeries for cancers of liver, bile duct and gall bladder, pancreatic resections for pancreatic cancer, colorectal, stomach, oesophageal and intestinal cancer, neuroendocrine tumours, abdominal sarcomas, retroperitoneal tumours, vascular resections and reconstructions in HPB tumours.