In the autologous stem cell transplantation process, a patient's stem cells damaged by radiation or severe chemotherapy dosages are restored. Before chemotherapy, a patient's normal stem cells, also known as blood-forming cells, are extracted from the bloodstream, preserved, and then re-injected into the patient, helping the bone marrow to create new blood cells. Blood malignancies including Hodgkin lymphoma, leukaemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, plasma cell disorders, and myeloma are frequently treated.
Autologous bone marrow transplant
Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs), which flow in the blood, are collected or harvested in this procedure. The procedure for extracting PBSCs is identical to that of donating blood. It also does not need surgery or general anaesthesia.
How is it Performed:
A few weeks before your blood is drawn, the patient will be given G-CSF, a daily medicine. It boosts the production of stem cells. After taking this medicine, you may have flu-like symptoms for a few days. The medicine might also cause aches and pains. Another medication may be administered during the blood collection to assist the stem cells' flow from the bone marrow into the blood, making it easier to collect them. plerixafor is the name of the medicine. Apheresis is then used to extract the hematopoietic stem cells. Removing progenitor cells from peripheral blood while the remainder of the blood is reinfused, known as apheresis.
An autologous stem cell transplant preparation includes the following steps:
Test: To find out what type of stem cell transplant is needed.
Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy with or without radiation removes cancer or tumour cells before administering the new healthy stem cells. This process is also called conditioning or cytotoxic therapy, where doctors also customise the treatment depending upon the patient's illness.
Isolated section in the hospital: The immune system will be weakened throughout therapy, limiting your capacity to fight infections. As a result, you'll be admitted to a portion of the hospital dedicated to those undergoing bone marrow transplants. As a result, you're less likely to come into contact with anything that may infect you.
Apheresis is non-surgical peripheral cannulation.
A sole autologous transplant is performed on the majority of individuals. Others may undergo a "tandem transplant," in which two organs are transplanted at the same time. A subsequent autologous stem cell transplant is planned following the initial autologous stem cell transplant. Before starting the first round of high-dose chemotherapy, all of the patient's stem cells are harvested. Half of those stem cells are pumped into the patient's body after the initial transplant. The remaining portion of the normal stem cells that were extracted during the first round is injected after the second course. The second round of high-dose chemotherapy usually takes many weeks or months.
Some of the risks involved in Autologous Stem Cell Transplant are:
Immunosuppression: Several months following chemotherapy, the immune system becomes weak, and the body cannot fight fungal, viral, and bacterial infections.
G-CSF side effects: Fever, dizziness, shortness of breath, and skin rash are the side effects of G-CSF
Chemotherapy side effects: Nausea, vomiting, oral mucositis, dry skin, alopecia, edema, and diarrhoea.
Lung problem: Pneumonia and lung inflammation.
Infection: Until engraftment, disease and other complications are a possibility. Germs that previously did not make you ill can now create serious consequences.
It will take several months for the patient to heal following a transplant. For the time being, the patient is unlikely to feel the same as they did before the sickness. The patient may feel weary and feeble, have a reduced appetite, and sense differences in how food tastes and smells. The patient will need time to regain their strength and resume their regular activities before the sickness and transplant.
Medications used in your therapy may also impact your looks and self-esteem. Your doctor can assist you in finding treatment and other options to help you get through this challenging period.
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