Bladder cancer is an abnormal growth of cells (tumor) that occurs in the urinary bladder cells.
The exact cause of bladder cancer is unknown. The possible causes are as follows.
Some of the signs and symptoms of bladder cancer are as follows.
When bladder cancer spreads to an advanced stage, it will cause the following symptoms:
Treatment for bladder cancer depends on the grade and stage of cancer. Some of the treatment options are as follows.
Though the exact cause of bladder cancer is unknown, some of the risk factors are as follows.
Bladder cancer can be in the early stages when it is only confined to the bladder or invasive when it penetrates the bladder wall and can spread to adjacent organs or lymph nodes. The staging system used for bladder cancer is the TNM staging which stands for Tumor, Node, and Metastasis. In this staging system, bladder cancer stages are as follows.
Tests to diagnose bladder cancer consist of various investigations. A cystoscopy will be done in which a scope is inserted through your urethra into the bladder to look for signs of abnormalities. During this cystoscopy, your doctor may also remove a small amount of tissue from within the bladder to examine it for cancer cells. This is called biopsy or transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). Urine cytology may be done in which your urine is examined under a microscope for any cancer cells. Imaging tests may also be done to determine the extent of cancer’s spread and the stage that it is in. These imaging tests include computerized tomography (CT) urogram or retrograde pyelogram, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), bone scan, and chest X-ray.
The primary prevention strategy for bladder cancer is to reduce the modifiable risk factors.
To prevent bladder cancer recurrence, targeting the risk factors that can be worked on is the best method.
Alternate Name: Bladder Carcinoma
As blood in the urine is the most common symptom of bladder cancer, it has a variety of differential diagnoses. Other diseases with similar symptoms to bladder cancer are urinary tract infections, hemorrhagic cystitis, prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, nephrolithiasis, renal cell cancer, other pelvic cancers, and diverticulitis. However, diagnostic investigations will help confirm the diagnosis of bladder cancer, separating it from the other differential diagnosis.
The prognosis of bladder cancer depends on the type, stage and grade of cancer. However, it is seen that after one year of diagnosis, 75 out of 100 individuals survive this cancer. After five years of diagnosis, 55 out of 100 individuals survive. The survival rate of individuals diagnosed after ten years with bladder cancer is 45 out of 100.
The natural progression of bladder cancer will depend on the grade. If it is high-grade cancer, then it will spread fast and grow quickly if no treatment is given. Even low-grade bladder cancer will progress to a more advanced stage and grade of bladder cancer without treatment.
When DNA mutations occur, bladder cancer occurs. Due to these mutations, the cells continue to multiply instead of dying after a specific amount of time. This results in uncontrolled cell growth, which results in a tumor. When it forms inside the urinary bladder, this tumor invades and destroys normal tissue in the body. Over time, these cancerous cells spread via blood or lymphatics to other parts of the body resulting in metastasis.
Bladder cancer can spread to adjacent organs. The cancer cells may also travel via the pelvic lymph nodes and spread to other organs like the lungs, liver, and bones. Other complications include anemia, erectile dysfunction in males, sexual dysfunction in females, urinary incontinence, swelling of the ureters, and urethral stricture (narrowing).
If you are facing any similar signs or symptoms please contact the Nanavati Max team to schedule an appointment at : +91 22 6836 0000