What is Kaposi Sarcoma?
In Kaposi sarcoma, cancerous cells form on the skin or mucous membranes that line the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, from the mouth to the anus, including the stomach and intestines. These tumours manifest as purple patches or nodules on the skin and/or mucous membranes, and they can spread to the lymph nodes and lungs.
Mouth, nose, and throat linings, lymph nodes, and other organs.
Causes of Kaposi Sarcoma
Anyone may obtain KS. However, several circumstances might raise your risk. Knowing your risk factors and discussing them with your doctor may enable you to make more educated healthcare decisions.
A person's chance of having Kaposi's sarcoma can be increased by the following factors:
- Human herpesvirus eight infections: This virus, commonly known as the Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), causes KS. However, most persons infected with KSHV do not acquire Kaposi's sarcoma. Cancer is more likely to occur when a person has KSHV and has difficulties with their immune system.
- Ethnicity: People of Jewish or Mediterranean ancestry and those residing in Sub-Saharan Africa are more likely to get Kaposi's sarcoma. KS is currently one of the most frequent tumours in some Sub-Saharan African nations, accounting for 89 percent of all KS cases.
- Gender: Men are more likely than women to get Kaposi's sarcoma.
- Immune deficiency: People with HIV/AIDS and those whose immune systems have been weakened following organ donation are more likely to acquire Kaposi's sarcoma. The general population has a KS incidence of one in 100,000, whereas HIV-infected persons have a KS incidence of one in 20.
Signs or Symptoms of Kaposi Sarcoma
- Purple, pink, brown, black, blue, or red blotches or pimples on the skin or in the mouth and/or throat that are slightly raised.
- Cough or chest ache that won't go away
- Pain in the stomach or intestines
Possible Treatments Available For Kaposi Sarcoma
- Local therapies: When there are just a few minor lesions, some doctors may recommend topical therapies such as chemotherapy injections given directly into lesions, cryosurgery, excisions, phototherapy, or local radiation.
- Chemotherapy: Patients with Kaposi sarcoma who do not recover after treating immunological deficiencies may need chemotherapy as a follow-up treatment. Chemotherapy is normally given intravenously, however; certain oral treatments are also available.
- Immunotherapy: The immune system's innate potential to fight cancer is activated with this sort of treatment. Researchers are using it to treat Kaposi sarcoma because it is beneficial in treating various cancers. Inquire with your doctor about immunotherapy clinical trials and other new treatment options.
- Improving the immune system's performance: Addressing the immune weakness that may allow the tumour to proliferate is the most successful and significant therapy for people with Kaposi sarcoma.
Risk factors of Kaposi Sarcoma
A variety of variables can contribute to Kaposi sarcoma, including:
- Inherited Syndromes: Syndromes that are passed down from generation to generation. Soft tissue sarcoma risk might be inherited from your parents. Genetic illnesses that raise your risk include hereditary retinoblastoma, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, and Werner syndrome.
- Chemical exposure: Certain pollutants, such as herbicides, arsenic, and dioxin, have been related to an increase in the prevalence of soft tissue sarcomas.
- Radiation exposure: Previous radiation therapy for other malignancies might aggravate soft tissue sarcomas.
Typical Test Required For Kaposi Sarcoma
Your doctor will need to do a biopsy to check if a suspicious-looking skin lesion is Kaposi's sarcoma. A biopsy involves removing a tiny tissue sample for evaluation in a laboratory.
Internal Kaposi's sarcoma is diagnosed using an Occult blood test in the faeces.
- Avoiding dangerous sexual behaviours like having unprotected sex
- Avoiding the use of intravenous (IV) needles already used by someone
- Using antiviral medicines as a preventative measure
- Getting skin exams regularly
Squamous cell carcinomas account for more than 90% of all oral cavity malignancies. The lining of the oral cavity, often known as the mucosa, comprises squamous cells. Tumours of the salivary glands, such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and other salivary gland malignancies, are also less prevalent kinds of oral cancer.
Multiple hemorrhagic sarcomas
The differential diagnosis may include:
- Fibrous histiocytoma
- Bacillary angiomatosis
- Fibrous histiocytoma
- Pyogenic granuloma
- Hemosiderotic hemangioma
- In India, Kaposi sarcoma has rarely been reported, even though the burden of HIV infection is second only to that in sub-Saharan Africa.
- Human herpesvirus-8, the virus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma, is prevalent in HIV-infected people.
Kaposi is relatively curable now, unlike early in the AIDS pandemic. Because the condition normally responds to one treatment, very few individuals die from it. According to the National Cancer Institute, the five-year relative survival rate is around 72 percent.
Kaposi's sarcoma is a multifocal systemic tumour with proliferating fibroblastic and microvascular components that show up on histological examination. The first indications are macules, papules, or nodules on the skin or mucosal surface. Lesions on the trunk, arms, head, and neck are common.
Kaposi sarcoma is produced by an overabundance of spindle cells, which are assumed to have originated from endothelial cells. Despite their diversity, the tumours are mostly made up of KSHV genetic material and immunohistochemistry markers for lymphoid, spindle, and endothelial cells.
Possible complications of Kaposi Sarcoma
If the sickness is in the lungs, you may experience cough (which may be bloody) and shortness of breath. If the illness is in the lymph nodes of the legs, there may be swelling in the legs that is uncomfortable or causes infections.
Our Medical Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment in Mumbai, India Experts
If you are facing any similar signs or symptoms please contact the Nanavati Max team to schedule an appointment at : +91 22 6836 0000