Polycystic Kidney Disease - Nanavati-Max Super Speciality Hospital, Vile Parle(W), Mumbai, India

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Polycystic Kidney Disease: What is It & Types?

Polycystic kidney disease is also known as PKD is a genetic disease. This means that it is caused by the variations or genetic character present in your genes. In PKD there are cystic formations in the kidney. When these cysts grow in number and/or size these make the kidney grow more than normal which in turn starts to damage the tissues present inside the kidney, it very often causes chronic kidney disease. These chronic kidney diseases can cause renal failures or end-stage renal failure. We at Nanavati Max provide the best kidney specialists in Mumbai.


Polycystic kidney disease is of two broad types:

1.   Autosomal dominant PKD: It causes cysts only in adult kidney, it is known as “adult PKD”. People with this type of PKD will not notice any symptom present until they reach the age of 30 – 40. It is the common type of PKD; every 9 out of 10 people with PKD have autosomal dominant PKD.


2.   Autosomal recessive PKD: it can grow in both, a kidney and a liver. It is often called infantile PKD as babies can show signs of PKD in the first few months of their life, or even before they are born. It is very less common and can often be life-threatening for the infant.


Cysts are sacs filled with fluids. The cysts in PKD grow from the nephron present in the kidney. People with PKD can have around thousands of cysts present in their kidney at once which can range up to 30 pounds. We try to be one of the best urology hospitals in Mumbai with a team of greatest doctors.


PKD is almost always inherited from one or both the parents. Men and women have equal rates and chances for the occurrence of PKD, thus we can say that it can happen to anyone form any race, sex, age, ethnicity. If a person does not have PKD but has its genes, they are possible carriers of the diseases. This is especially possible for autosomal recessive PKD. Best nephrologists in India say that a good routine is a way of success for control of PKD.


Many types of research have shown that there is no possible way to prevent the occurrence of PKD. Nanavati Max is a very renowned kidney hospital, and we are dedicated to providing our patients with the best possible solutions to keep their issues to a minimum and live a happy and healthy life which is a need. However, the kidney function can be maintained by following a healthy lifestyle, such as:

1.      Keeping a normal blood pressure.

2.      Maintaining a healthy blood sugar level.

3.      Following and maintaining a normal BMI.

4.      Intake of alcohol should be limited.

5.      There needs to be an intake of low salt and a low-fat diet.

6.      Smoking and use of tobacco should be stopped as soon as possible.

7.      Most importantly, exercise should be done, for at least 30 minutes a day.

8.      One should always avoid taking an overdose of over the counter medications.


If a person looks into the complications associated with PKD, they can be seen as follows:

1.      A most common complication for people with PKD is kidney pain and high blood pressure.

2.      Kidney failure is also an outcome of chronic PKD.

3.      Kidney stones occur in a few cases.

4.      Urinary tract infections

5.      Pancreatic cysts develop while PKD

6.      Heart valve problems start.

7.      Preeclampsia which is a serious pregnancy problem develops in case a pregnant woman has ADPKD and high blood pressure.


Genetic testing can help to identify whether you are a carrier or not. This testing can simply be done by taking a sample of your saliva or blood. PKHD1 is a specific gene responsible for PKD. Symptoms and signs of ADPKD are visible even before a child is born. Regular ultrasounds of the pregnant woman can show a clear increase in the size of the kidney of the newborn. Another sign is a lack of amniotic fluid. In the early months of pregnancy mother’s body produces amniotic fluid by the second-trimester fetus starts to produce its amniotic fluid. So babies which badly damaged kidneys cannot produce enough amniotic fluid.